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Full text of "The logic and magic of color : an exhibition celebrating the centennial anniversary of the Cooper Union, 20th April-31st August, 1960"

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20th April -31st August, 1960 






In assembling material for the exhibition, the Museum has received most helpful 
suggestions and information from the following, to whom are given grateful 

Hannes Beckmann 

Junius B. Bird 

Joseph L. Boland, Jr. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Burris-Meyer 

Wesley M. Dixon 

Raymond B. Dowden 

Miss Lillian Eddy 

Dr. Gordon F. Ekholm 

Karl Fink 

Carl Fischer 

Miss Margaret B. Freeman 

Dr. Burleigh Gardner 

Alexander Girard 

O. C. Holland 

Deane B. Judd 

EarlL. Kahn 

Dr. Paul Levy 

Paul R. MacAlister 

Steven MacNeille 

Miss Jean E. Mailey 
Paul L. Oertell 
Charles P. Parkhurst 
Gordon R. Reekie 
Max Saltzman 
A. E. Schoeffler 
Dan Smith 
Douglas Y. Smith 
Milton Stecher 
Mrs. Helen Taylor 
Colin Turnbull 
Miss Florence E. Wall 
Miss Midge Wilson 
Hugh C. Wolfe 
Richard Wood 
Dr. Benjamin Wright 
Mrs. Roxa Wright 
Matthew Wysocki 

COVER design: wave-length curves of red, yellow 
and blue hues a& plotted by the spectrophotometer; 
adapted from charts prepared by Union Carbide 
Plastics Company 

CATALOGUE TEXT: stock and inks used in accord- 
ance with research studies of Faber Birren to pro- 
vide 80% contrast for maximum efficiency and 
minimum eye-fatigue. 

3394 5*^ 

Copyright 1960 by the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 


A la Vieille Russie, Inc. 

Allied Chemical Corporation, National 

Aniline Division 
Allied Chemical Corporation, National 

Aniline Division, Harmon Colors 
American Art Clay Company 
American Biltrite Rubber Company 
American Optical Company, Instrument 

The American Museum of Natural History 
American Viscose Corporation 
The Antique Porcelain Company, Inc. 
American Fabrics 
Hannes Beckmann 
Junius B. Bird 

Mr. and Mrs. Byron A. Born 
The Brooklyn Museum 
Brooklyn Botanical Gardens 
Brooks Costume Company 
Canadian Industries, Ltd., Fabrikoid Division 
L. E. Carpenter Company 
Celanese Corporation 
Ciba Company, Inc. 
The Color Association of the U.S., Inc. 
Container Corporation of America 
Museum of Contemporary Crafts 
Corning Glass Center 
The Coming Museum of Glass 
Cooper Union Art School 
Cooper Union School of Engineering, 

Physics Department 
Cooper Union Library 
Ben Cunningham 
Arthur Damask 
Dr. Sidney M. Edelstein 

Everson Museum of Art 
Fine Arts Associates 
French & Company 
General Electric Company 
Mrs. David Glieberman 
W. T. Grant Company 
Norman E. Hallendy 

Heywood- Wakefield Company 

House and Garden 

Jack Lenor Larsen, Inc. 

Karl Mann Associates 

Jan Kindler 

Knoll Associates 

H. Kohnstamm & Company, Inc. 

Mathias Komor 

Helen KroU Kramer 

Kubin-Nicholson Corporation 

Le Gip Studios 

Lippincott & Margulies, Inc. 

Miss Ruth Marton 

Miss Dorothy Mathews 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art 

Munsell Color Company, Inc. 

National Bureau of Standards 

National Industrial Design Council, 

Ottawa, Canada 
The Newark Museum 
The New Gallery 
Robert O'Heam 
Onandaga Pottery Company 
The Art Museum, Princeton University 
Radio Corporation of America 
Reynolds Metal Company 
Rodgers and Hammerstein 
Sears, Roebuck and Company 
Sidney Janis Gallery 
Social Research, Inc. 
Milton Stecher 
Pola Stout 

Sun Chemical Corporation 
Thaibok, Inc. 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Thaw 
Tom Lee, Ltd. 
Colin TurnbuU 

Union Carbide Plastics Company 
Oppi Untracht 
Mrs. Luis F. Vela 
William J. Young 
Dr. Samuel Zuckerman 


Of all visual phenomena, color is so common a part of our lives that few of us 
ever really see it and fewer stiU speculate on such simple yet enigmatic questions as 
how and when colors were named as they are, whence come the dyes that color our 
clothes and the pigments we spread across a canvas, how designers gauge the 
mercurial world of color fashion, to what degree colors better or worsen our psy- 
chological and even physical Uves, or simplest and most puzzling of all: what, 
exactly, is color. 

To the manufacturer and the shopper who buys his merchandise, color is one 
thing; to the artist concerned with the visual effect of pigments, it is another; and to 
the psychologist evaluating his experiments in reactions to color, it is something else 
again. Each, however, is xiependent on the other for a full realization of a specific 
color, and no attempt at a true explanation of that color's creation can be made 
without considering color in all its aspects, a consideration that in the end must 
necessarily offer an answer to the question, what, exactly, is color. 

The earliest and a most remarkable exploration into the problem is found in 
Aristotle's discussion of the five senses in which he says we cannot see color without 
the help of light. Light to Aristotle was an "activity," a force that when "excited 
to actuality" produced the sensation of color, providing a foundation for subse- 
quent developments in the science of color. Further on, however, Aristotle gives 
an intricately metaphysical analysis of the senses, describing their interdependence 
and fundamental connection with the soul. Actual knowledge is quite different 
from potential knowledge, says Aristotle; a distinction nicely expressed in a state- 
ment in which he appears to turn from an observation of physical color itself to 
contemplate the eye, "that which sees," with a suggestion of the complexities 
involved in the brain's response to color: "If to perceive by sight is just to see, and 
what is seen is color (or the colored), then if we are to see that which sees, that 
which sees originally must be colored. It is clear therefore that 'to perceive by 
sight' has more than one meaning; for even when we are not seeing, it is by sight 
that we discriminate darkness from light, though not in the same way as we dis- 
tinguish one color from another. Further, in a sense that which sees is colored; 
for in each case the sense-organ is capable of receiving the sensible object without 
its matter. That is why even when the sensible objects are gone the sensings and 

imaginings continue to exist in the sense-organs." (De Anima, Book III, chap. 2). 

On such expositions as this is built the whole body of the metaphysical pheno- 
menology of color, ranging from the latest psychological data based on carefully 
annotated experiments, to the wildest sort of fantastic beUefs, rooted in cabalism 
and peasant mythology. Objective science, on the other hand, is responsible for the 
creation of the dyes and pigments that form the bulk of familiar color matter, while 
the physiological perception of color involves the eye, whose rehability as a judge — 
though this fact is often ignored — is so completely relative that the exact measure- 
ment of color is only possible through scientifically complex machinery. 

Questions about color inevitably reach into almost every branch of science, into 
philosophy, philology and the arts, as well as the intuitive practices of business — 
questions demanding a balance of "actual" and "potential" knowledge, of abstruse 
argument and empirically tested fact for answers that are not always visually 
demonstrable. ' 


Color springs, literally, from the aether, for in the view of physical science it is 
correct to assign color not to an object but rather to the light reflected from the 
object. The sweater we wear is only red or blue or gray when we deal with it in 
practical, household terms; as an example of scientific explanation, its color is a 
sensation received as an image on the retina of the eye. In this scientific perception 
of color, the color-producing sensation is always caused by light which is but one 
of several aspects of radiant energy. 

Invisible to the human eye are those forms of radiant energy known as radio 
waves, infra-red and ultra-violet radiation. X-ray and gamma rays, while fight that 
can be seen is contained within the visible spectrum, composed of a distinct series 
of colors ranging from violet at one end to red on the other. We see the spectrum 
in exactly this range created naturally when there is a rainbow or, more commonly, 
a layer of oil slick on a wet pavement. Our knowledge of the spectrum as a scien- 
tific phenomenon stems chiefly from the late 17th century when Sir Isaac Newton 
recreated the colors of the spectrum by directing light through a prism. Newton 
was aware that not all colors were of precisely the same nature; the difference in 
their appearances to the eye had to be accounted for in terms of physical science 
and Newton concluded that "it is manifest that if the Sun's Light consisted of but 

one sort of Rays there would be but one Colour in the whole World, nor would it be 
possible to produce any new Colour by Reflexions and Refractions, and by con- 
sequence that the variety of Colours depends upon the composition of Light." 

We know today, substantiating Newton's conclusion, that every color has a 
particular "Ray" all its own, what in modern terminology is called a wave-length. 
The wave-lengths of hght visible to the eye are measured in millimicrons (one 
millimicron, abbreviated mjx, is twenty-five milHonths of an inch) with the range 
from violet to red confined to wave-lengths between 380 and 760 millimicrons. 
When aU wave-lengths within these measurements are presented to the eye in 
approximately equal quantities we have a sensation of colorless, or "white" light. 
The phenomenon of the rainbow, caused by sunlight dispersed on the curved sur- 
faces of raindrops, and the beam of white Hght passed through a prism are examples 
of the separation of white Mght into its component wave-lengths. On the other 
hand, white Hght may be created by overlapping red, green and blue light, a demon- 
stration illustrating additive color mixture since it is the addition of each of the 
three colors to the other two that in effect produces the white Hght, and, conse- 
quently these are called the additive primaries (No. 7). A second set of primary 
colors, red, yeUow and blue, are related to subtractive color mixture, since each 
color subtracts its complementary from white light (No. 9). TechnicaUy, the 
subtractive primaries are not red, yellow and blue but magenta, yellow and cyan. 
The magenta absorbs green, the yellow absorbs blue, and the cyan absorbs red, 
resulting in black since all Hght has been subtracted. 

Most ordinary objects absorb differing amounts of light of differing wave-lengths 
and our perception of a particular color is a result of the sensation produced by the 
light that is not absorbed but reflected. The red book-cover has a coloring material 
whose physical structure is such that it absorbs aU light but that wave-length which 
produces red. Another aspect in. the distribution of wave-lengths is scattering. The 
color of the blue sky is affected by the relative scattering of sunlight by the atmo- 
sphere. Variations in the density of the atmospheric gases scatter the shorter wave- 
lengths at the blue end of the spectrum more than they scatter the longer wave- 
lengths. When the sun is high in the sky, enough short wave-lengths are present to 
make the sky appear blue, but early or late in the day, the sun's rays strike the earth 
more obHquely, passing a much greater distance through the atmosphere and 
causing the longer wave-lengths to be more apparent, with a consequent change in 

color from blue to yellow, orange and red, the usual colors of the evening sky. 

When a painter paints with oils or watercolors, a dyer colors his cloth or a 
lighting technician uses color filters, each modifies a white or colored surface in 
such a way that it takes on further color. Usually this is achieved through the use 
of pigments or dyes whose color relies on the principle of subtractive mixture, and 
this is why to most of us "red, yellow and blue" are the primary colors. 

In addition to refraction, in which we see the spectrum produced by fight through 
a prism (No. 1), the spectrum is seen in other phenomena such as interference, 
where a light ray reflected from the bottom surface of a film such as that found in 
a soap bubble or the oil slick on wet pavement travels a slightly greater distance 
than a paraUel ray reflected from the top surface. Some wave-lengths are weakened 
more than others as the crests of one wave penetrate the troughs of another, 
causing the interference. The spectrum is again seen when white light is Separated 
by diffraction, achieved, for example, through the use of evenly ruled surfaces, 
called diffraction gratings, with the rufings sometimes so close together they 
are invisible to the eye yet effectively diffract the white light (Nos. 6, 11 ) . In the 
former, the molecules of a fluorescent material absorb radiant energy of one wave- 
length and re-radiate it as another wave-length; the radiant energy thus absorbed 
frequently comes from outside the visible spectrum, as in the instance of "black 
fight." Stage costumes that glow in the dark under ultra-violet radiation from lamps 
with filters that absorb the visible radiation and re-radiate ultra-violet radiation are 
dyed in such a way that the invisible ultra-violet radiation is returned from the 
costume itself as a visible color. Even more intricate is polarization, in which light 
is said to be polarized or non-polarized depending on the relation of reflected light 
to refracted light (Nos. 14, 17); as a visible phenomenon, it may be observed in 
material with a pronounced lustre or sheen. 

With our perception of color dependent on the behavior of wave-lengths and 
their phenomenal peculiarities, it is not surprising to find these peculiarities amply 
represented in nature as well as in the physics laboratory. The iridescence in 
mother-of-pearl (No. 42) and in the plumage of certain birds (Nos. 130, 124) 
and insects (No. 125) is the result of interference and diffraction, while the spec- 
tacular effect of cut crystal (No. 2)— and of diamonds — is due to prismatic 

Among the many artists whose chief concern has been color, the group known 

as the Orphists deliberately set out to represent on canvas their interpretations of 
the phenomena observed when white light was separated into its spectral colors 
(No. 185). At its height about 1912, Orphism was an important movement in the 
early history of non-figurative painting and at the same time extended the artist's 
use of color beyond an interest in surface effects to the deeper confines of symbolism 
and its psychological relations to music. 

The point of view expressed in a physical analysis of color, that color and light 
are one and the same thing, that color is light, serves as a solid base that is by no 
means the entire explanation of the production and interpretation of color, yet in an 
infinite number of ways, color's production and interpretation are next to meaning- 
less without an understanding of this physical genesis of color. 


Color is a child not only of light, but of the material characteristics of whatever 
it is the light falls upon. The red sweater, as a phenomenon of physics, is red 
because all wave-lengths but one are absorbed, yet the wave-length must be 
"excited to actuality" in some way, and, in fact, the sweater's redness is dependent 
on the dyeing of its fibres. The molecular structure of the particular substance in 
which it is dyed in a sense predetermines what wave-lengths shall and shall not be 
absorbed and reflected, a scientific process confined to chemistry. 

The ancient Egyptians were among the world's first and most accomplished 
color chemists, using the earth's natural resources (No. 43) for a marvelous variety 
of coloring materials to dye their clothes and their hair, and paint their bodies. Dios- 
corides, Theophrastus and Vitruvius all have things to say about dyes and dyeing 
methods in Greco-Roman times, but the richest literary source of the ancient world 
is Phny's Natural History in which he tells not only from what animals and plants 
particular dyes were made but, even more valuable historically, recipes for such 
famous dyes as indigo and the elusive purple made from the murex shells found 
along the Mediterranean shores of Europe, Africa and Asia Minor. 

Purple, in its rarity, became the prerogative of kings; they were crowned in robes 
of purple, and buried in sarcophagi of porphyry, the reddish-purple rock expen- 
sively mined in Egypt. Dyes and pigments were a major factor in the economic 
and political shifts of power that marked the transition of medieval Europe from 
a feudal to a commercial society. Wars were fought, new dye and pigment 


sources found, and new compounds invented when in the middle of the 19th 
century the accidental discovery that dyes could be made wholly from coal tar 
compounds dissolved in a breath the whole system of natural dyes and pigments 
that had served the commercial world for centuries. Today, the creation of the 
immense variety of colors which surrounds our daily hves is so infinitely complex a 
process, dependent on a specialized knowledge of chemistry, that it is entirely out- 
side the experience of the ordinary individual. It is inconceivable that a lady of 
today would produce her own face rouge, as did her 18th-century counterpart, by 
boihng a mixture of Brazil Wood shavings and Roch Alum in red wine "Till two- 
thirds of the hquor are consumed. When this decoction has stood till cold, rub a 
little on the cheeks with a bit of cotton." Even dyeing methods were understood 
by the average man in an earlier age and, to some extent, probably used in the 
home. An early 19th-century magazine, Ackermann's Repository, gives instruc- 
tions for "Domestic Processes for Dyeing Woolen, Silk, Cotton, and other Stuffs, 
a Permanent Yellow, Red, Crimson, Blue, Brown, Buff, Nankeen, Fawn Colour 
etc., etc." Wool could be dyed brown or fawn by "making a decoction of the 
green covering of the walnut. It is well known that walnut-peels strongly dye the 
skin. To dye brown with them, nothing else is required than to immerse the 
article in a warm decoction of them till it has acquired the wished-for colour." 

Not all recipes were quite so simple, many having several more steps including 
the addition of subtle amounts of such chemicals as "crystallized acetate of copper" 
and "sal ammoniac" at the right moment. The heart of these recipes, whether for 
the home manufacture of cosmetics or small factory production of dyes, hes in the 
use of particular natural substances as the foundation for all coloring matter, and 
while these substances frequently underwent considerable chemical action before 
they were ready for actual use as a dye or pigment, the result is termed "natural" 
since the ultimate source was some material found in nature, a term readily under- 
stood when we know that modern dyes and pigments not only finish but begin as 
purely synthetic substances. 

Alchemy, in the popular imagination, is associated with quackery and occult 
mysteries but alchemy is also the respectable parent of chemistry. The practice of 
alchemy, known to the early Greeks and probably to the Egyptians, was initially 
concerned with the transmutation of base metals into gold and, although its ethics 
became increasingly tarnished during the Middle Ages, alchemy developed many 


of the technical methods and much of the apparatus of present-day chemistry. 
Coupled with alchemy's naive belief in the philosopher's stone was a very practical 
discovery which, at a very early date, influenced the chemical creation of color. 
Alchemists noticed that on dipping hot metals into their various mordant baths 
they acquired unusual colors, or became "dyed." Eventually, the colorers of metals 
and dyers of fabrics were in an identical business, and today we speak not only of 
"dyeing" fabrics but the term is also used for the process by which anodized metals 
are colored (No. 91). 

The colors of our clothing, wallpaper, automobiles, the covers of the books we 
read, of everything in which color is not the direct result of natural creation, are 
the product of either dyes or pigments. Distinctions between the two lie chiefly 
in the nature of the substance; dyes are organic and soluble while pigments, with 
certain exceptions, are inorganic and insoluble. Prior to the mid- 19th century, 
both relied on an assortment of animal, mineral and vegetable sources with the 
same source frequently capable of producing either a dye or pigment. The earliest 
dyes were probably discovered by accident and may have been stains from berries, 
fruits and nuts used as food. Dyeing as an art seems to have independently devel- 
oped and been practiced among primitive peoples everywhere (Nos. 133, 156). 
From simple origins, dyeing quickly became a relatively complex chemical pro- 
cedure often requiring several days of boiling, filtering and oxidization. Most dyes 
rehed on the action of mordants to make them "fast," or firmly adherent, with the 
customary mordant a soluble salt of aluminum, iron or tin. 

Among the great names in natural dyes were madder, kermes, and cochineal 
(No. 49) for red, weld for yeUow, murex for purple (No. 61), and woad and 
indigo for blue (Nos. 57, 58). Nearly aU dye sources were plants or animals and at 
an early point in the history of dyeing it was realized that plant dyes adhere most 
successfully to plant fibres and animal dyes to animal fibres. Minerals, on the 
other hand, were almost exclusively raw materials for pigments (Nos. 43, 44). 

While many pigment sources, such as malachite and lapis lazuli, are familiar 
through frequent use in their natural state (No. 119), others are generally unrecog- 
nizable. These are what medieval writers classified as "artificial" pigments, manu- 
factured salts such as vermflion, a compound of mercury and sulphur, or verdigris, 
produced by treating copper plates with the acetic acid vapors given off by vinegar. 
By modern standards, the manufacture of both dyes and pigments in the past must 


have known its share of incalculable risks as the quality of natural substances was 
certain to vary and formulas were often loosely inexact, risks which since the 
development of synthetic dyes and pigments are, by comparison, reduced to near 

Synthetic dyes owe their immediate origin to WiUiam Henry Perkin, who as a 
young medical student in London attempting to prepare quinine synthetically 
discovered that his result was not the desired medicine but a blueish-red dyestuff 
obtained from the distillation products of coal tar. Perkin's first aniline dye was a 
violet-colored mauveine, "Perkin's mauve," and its commercial manufacture began 
in 1857, only a year after its discovery (No. 74). Soon, an aniline red was 
developed, later called fuchsine or magenta (No. 76), then further experiments 
saw the conversion of fuchsine into violet, blue and green derivatives. Dyestuff 
chemists worked empirically with little real knowledge of the chemical structure 
of the molecules involved and why they behaved as they did. In 1869, Friedrich 
Kekule published a formula which held that a hexagonal ring structure may be 
assigned to benzene, and from CeHe, six parts carbon and six parts hydrogen, is 
derived the molecular constitution of benzene. Kekule's theory became the founda- 
tion of benzene chemistry and of all subsequent dyestuff research (No. 81). 

Synthesized alizarin and azo dyes were born in 1868 and 1877, and one of 
the greatest triumphs of dyestuff chemistry was the later synthesis of indigo. 
Pigments, always closely related to dyes, were drawn even closer within the frame- 
work of organic chemistry and dyes and pigments together share the practical 
results of chemical compounds which solely through the molecular arrangement 
of elements produce the astonishing variety of colors that are manufactured today. 
Research, however, just as in the old days of the alchemists, is a never-ending 
quest, and as the past hundred years have witnessed extraordinary developments 
in the physical creation of color, present-day science invents not only new colors 
but new materials, materials offering new challenges to color chemistry. 


Color, wave-lengths of light reflected from material objects, is seen by the human 
eye. With its complex physical apparatus, the eye forms an image of the color 
as a wave-length of light on the eye's retina, a lens that is the rear surface of the 
eyeball, immediately causing an electric disturbance which activates special light- 


sensitive elements within the retina. Connected with the brain by the single optic 
nerve behind each eyeball, these elements are the rods and cones. How, precisely, 
rods and cones separate one color from another is unknown, and while physiologists 
do know that cones are responsible for color vision and rods for vision that merely 
distinguishes degrees of light and dark, they can only speculate on the exact nature 
of the physical process of color selection. 

The phenomenon of color mixture indicates that the retina must respond in at 
least three different ways to different colors. Still the most widely accepted general 
explanation is that of Young and Helmholtz, who concluded there must be three 
distinct kinds of cone receptors, separately responsive to either red, blue or green 
wave-lengths. All other colors were conceived as blends of differing degrees and 
proportions on the part of these three, a mutual interaction accounting for non- 
primary colors, while color-blindness, according to the Young-Helmholtz theory, 
is caused by peculiar deficiencies in one or more of the three sets of cone receptors. 

As mysterious as the physical function of cones in the eye's retina are various 
psychophysical optical phenomena such as after-images, contrast-enhancement and 
fusion. There are many kinds of after-images, with the usual chromatic phenome- 
non termed a complementary after-image in which visual concentration on red, 
for example, will cause an after-image of green the brief second the eye looks away 
from the stimulating color (No. 23). A more readily observable phenomenon 
involving complementary colors is contrast-enhancement. Red immediately juxta- 
posed with green, or blue with yellow, increases the intensity of each; a particular 
red appears "redder" and the green "greener" than when seen independently. 
Fusion is an optical mixture of two colors in which the eye sees neither as it is in 
isolation but an apparent third color created by juxtaposed complementaries. 

Visual phenomena were long ago empirically understood by artists and crafts- 
men. The knowing use of red-green contrast-enhancement by Delacroix is certainly 
matched for brilliant effect, for instance, in specific 15th-century Spanish textiles 
(No. 19) while both Alberti and Filarete, important figures of the Renaissance in 
15th-century Italy, wrote that with red next to green, each enhanced the vividness 
of the other. The 19th century saw the formulation into rational principles of these 
empirical practices, and the culmination of "scientific" painting was reached with 
Seurat, who, relying on what he called "the simultaneous contrast of colors," 
related his pointillist technique to the theoretical ideas of Chevreul. 


Chevreul, director of the Dye Works of the French GobeHns factory, set out 
to discover why there were complaints about the quality of certain colors prepared 
in the GobeHns' dyeing laboratories. His investigations (No. 40) led him to 
conclude that "the want of vigor" imputed to particular colors was "owing to the 
colors contiguous to them, and that the matter was involved in the phenomena of 
the contrast of colors." Chevreul wrote a monumental treatise based on his findings 
that not only influenced the course of impressionist and post-impressionist painting, 
but also acted as a spur to the century's increasing scientific concern with color. 
Typical of this concern is a criticism of Chevreul's method from a later work, 
Field's Chromatography: "Chevreul went entirely by the judgment of the eye. This 
method is open to much objection, as even the most carefully trained eyes are 
liable to be misled, and influenced by association." Out of this kind of critical 
approach have grown a number of intricately detailed color systems, with the two 
best-known and most frequently-used today caUed, after their founders, the Ostwald 
and the Munsell systems. Less generally familiar is the equally important, and 
somewhat more specialized, CIE (Commission Internationale d'Eclairage) system, 
which has developed the chromaticity diagram, a horseshoe-shaped map whose 
outer boundaries represent the pure spectrum colors in relation to each other 
(No. 200). 

Both the Ostwald and Munsell systems rely for color gradations on three specific 
concepts: hue, value and chroma. Hue defines the color in relation to the spectrum, 
whether it is red, or green or orange and so on; value is the relative degree of Kght 
or dark, ranging from white to black; and chroma describes a particular color's 
intensity, whether it is a very dull or extremely brilliant color (Nos. 205, 206) . Fre- 
quently, color scientists wiU substitute the terms brightness and saturation for 
value and chroma. 

Users of either the Ostwald or Munsell system are apt to be partisan in their 
choice, with the pro-Ostwald faction likely to comprise those who work with color 
in a creative capacity, and the pro-Munsell group those concerned with the measure- 
ment and the exact matching of color. Each group finds that the distinctions which 
set one system apart from the other are its very virtues, distinctions that exist, 
however, within a general framework which at a casual glance would convey an 
impression of nearly duplicate systems. 

The measurement of color, or colorimetry, is a demanding discipline vital to the 


unknown millions who have ever tried to match a particular color with more of the 
same, as well as to all in the manufacturing world whose Hvehhood may depend on 
a color's constancy, to the maintainers of safety color codes (No. 211), and even 
to graders of commercially processed foods. Related to measurement is the identi- 
fication of the elements of chemistry on the basis of color, with hehum initially 
discovered through its identifying yellow color; and color is an integral and com- 
plex part of the Quantum Theory. 

In the United States the National Bureau of Standards, assisted by the learned 
and professional associations composing the Inter-Society Color Council, has done 
much to establish carefully worked-out standards for measuring color, employing all 
the technical resources of modem science. Among the many mechanical devices 
employed for color measurement, the ultimate in exactness is the spectrophotometer, 
which can plot a graph that will include all the wave-lengths, with measurements 
of their relative strength, that are reflected by any hue submitted for analysis 
(No. 217). 

Highly specialized colorimetry prefers letters and numbers to actual names for 
color designations. A dark green-yellow in the Munsell system, for example, may 
be described by GY 3/8, in which 3 specifies value and 8 chroma. This is a long 
way from the designations used in what is perhaps the earliest system for color 
standardization we know: heraldry. The familiar color terms in medieval heraldry, 
or for gold, argent for silver, sable for black, gules /or red, and so forth, were 
closely connected with the overlapping symbolism of the period and may have 
stemmed from Aristotle's transposition of the names of the seven planets to metals 
and colors. In practice, however, the color terms in heraldry were apparently 
represented by conventional rendering; argent by unfilled space, or by dots, and 
vertical, horizontal or diagonal lines with combinations of the three for the 
remainder. Heraldic colors were, consequently, not only standardized in termino- 
logy but recognizable solely on the basis of a simple system of lines and dots, a 
system that while primitive in degree is not so far removed in kind from today's 
use of specific letters and numbers. 

Standardization is equated with stability, a permanence which in its flexible 
accommodation of all the variations of value and chroma attached to a hue never- 
theless establishes a fixed order of distinctions that is completely unaffected by the 
associative ideas inevitably related to color names. Names, however, are the garb 


of fashion whose soul is change. The Dictionary of Color by Maerz and Paul lists 
over four thousand color names. Colors popular ten, twenty, a hundred years ago 
have been forgotten and we might beUeve that "nankeen," a great favorite in the 
18th and early 19th centuries, is a color forever lost until we realize that only the 
name and not the color is gone. Fashion's constant search for uniqueness demands 
unique colors and such is the color "consumer's" psychological reaction that he 
will often accept as unique what is in actual fact a famiUar color with a new name, 
a fiction compounded when individual manufacturers and professional employers 
of color formulate their own "unique" color ranges. 

Turquoise, beige, persimmon, coral, lime are terms for which our imaginations 
have an instantaneous color image. Color names in all their inconstancy appeal to 
our apparently natural desire for variety, a pleasantly irrational state of mind that 
is frivolously mercurial and wholly opposed to the standardization of color 

The eye, filtering and transmitting fight waves to the brain which produces 
sensations of color, is physically incapable of the exacting measurement of color. 
Yet because of the pecufiar interaction between the eye's physical function and 
psychological responses in the brain, any personal evaluation of color is a concep- 
tual process whose sole "mechanical" tool is the eye. Optics and color measure- 
ment become the bridge between physics and metaphysics, the certain wave-length 
of light and the uncertain response in the human brain. 


If, as in the instance of after-images, and the fusion of colors in the eye, man's 
physical apparatus is sometimes subject to tricks that are not entirely explainable, 
his powers of reason in matters of color are almost always at the mercy of the 
human psyche's arbitrary whims and irrational fancies. Hard as this may be to 
believe, we need look no farther for evidence than the accounts of a primitive 
homeopathy that relied on the magical use of color, or the intricacies of a color 
symbofism whose origins are frequently unknown yet which survives in so many 
uses today, or ask ourselves why it is we prefer this color to that and why we 
associate particular states of mind with particular colors. 

The magical properties of color are even today, among less medically advanced 
peoples, a fixed part of cures for diseases. Frazer, in The Golden Bough, tells of an 


elaborate ceremony once practiced in India for the cure of jaundice in which the 
yellow color was banished to yellow creatures and yellow things, such as birds 
and the sun, and to procure for the patient a healthy red color from a vigorous 
source, usually a red bull. A priest, reciting an appropriate Vedic hymn, performed 
a series of rites that reUed on physical contact between the patient and the dead 
bull's blood, hair and skin. For cures, and especially as preventive protection, 
probably nothing in the magical world has ever surpassed gems (No. 270). The 
brilliance of cut and pohshed stones, often so different from their initial drab 
appearance, is in itself a magical achievement that borders on sorcery. 

All ancient peoples seem to have worn quantities of gems and while it is true 
they may have often been worn simply as adornment, gems probably had a dual 
function with their role as amulets as significant as any other. A fine emerald 
insured its owner of a good memory, eloquent speech and even powers of prophecy; 
rubies preserved bodily and mental health, removed evil thoughts and dissipated 
pestilential vapors; jasper cured snake bites; and wearers of agate were guarded 
from all dangers, free of insomnia and sure to have pleasant dreams. In nearly all 
such uses is traceable a relationship between the good acquired or evil warded off 
and the color itself, an elementary symboHsm that is a universal aspect of magic. 

In an early 14-century manual for the faithful, Mirror of Human Salvation, 
the author warns us not to marvel that the same things may signify the devil at one 
time and Christ at another. In considering any connection between colors and 
particular emotions or as distinct symbols, we can never be inflexibly didactic. 
There is never exclusively one symboHc meaning attached to a color, for in every 
concrete situation, the color or colors involved are not only outer aspects, surfaces, 
but also expressions of the situation itself. These concrete situations are doubtless 
what the author of the Mirror of Human Salvation had in mind, and what the 
eminent, modern-day psychologist, Kouwer, means by the "polyvalence" of 
colors, the multiple potentialities in the meanings of color depending on concrete 
situations. Red does not stand only for anger or passion or blue for fideHty. Color 
symbolism cannot be reduced solely to a list of contrasts, sin and love, supreme joy 
and base desire, but to an infinitely subtler analysis in which colors and whatever 
meanings are associated with them are always subject to shifts in interpretation. 
It frequently becomes a question of the emotional weight attached to words them- 
selves, a weight that differs in time and place and especially in language. In poetic 


German, for example, "die Baume griinen, der Himmel blaut," are expressions 
meaning not that the trees become green and the sky turns blue but the trees are 
green and the sky is blue, representing a use of a color word as a verb, a physical 
activity in the best Aristotelian sense. Ruskin, commenting on the color perception 
of the Greeks, finds it all founded primarily on the degree of connection between 
color and light. Homer's use of purple nearly always means "fiery, full of light," 
and, says Ruskin, light subdued by blackness, according to Aristotle, becomes red; 
and blackness, heated or lighted, also becomes red. The perfect physical analogy 
for this metaphysical idea are the transitions from day to night and night to day, 
the red skies of dawn and dusk. 

Black, white and red, a triangle in which red is always at the apex, served 
Goethe for his quasi-scientific color theories as well as they did the Greeks, and they 
are essential symbolic colors in innumerable primitive rites (No. 173). Red is the 
color "par excellence," comments Kouwer. Its chromaticity has the maximum 
concentration; with red, reason is replaced by the irrationality of action and 
the dynamics of the moment. It is impossible to keep red at a distance or to 
rationalize it. 

Red is a symbol of fife in its animal, corporeal aspect, of fever as well as glowing 
health, of masculinity, aggressiveness, evil and sacrifice. It is the color of Bacchus in 
his role as god of regeneration. Red is almost always, in its ultimate symbolic 
derivation, associated with blood, shown not only by philological comparisons of 
word roots but by its extensive use as visual symbolism. 

During the Middle Ages, that great era of symbolism, all colors were endowed 
with meaning and red assumed its secular place as the preserve of kings and princes 
and its religious significance for the Holy Blood (No. 262) and the Triumph of 
Christ at the Resurrection (No. 197) as well as the sacrifice of martyr saints, and 
the church adopted red as a canonical color for feasts commemorating sacrifice 
(No. 269). 

For the Chinese, red is the color of joy and good fortune. In India it is a 
color for weddings (No. 268); and an ancient Hindu gem treatise asserts that 
to kings alone were allowed two varieties of colored diamonds, "those red as coral 
and those yellow as saffron." The Indians of North and Central South America use 
black, white, red and yellow to distinguish the four points of the compass. 
Of all "chromatic" colors, those other than gradations of black and white, yellow 


is the one most consistently allied with red, the two appearing as constant com- 
panions in Oriental symbolism (No. 273), and, in nearly all languages, are the 
first of the "chromatic" colors to acquire distinct names. This phenomenon is 
attributed to the relative conspicuousness of red and yellow as opposed to green 
and blue, the most commonly found colors in nature and, as a consequence, colors 
that recede in our conscious awareness. Goethe called blue "ein reizendes Nichts" 
(an alluring nothingness), and almost everywhere blue is the last of the primary 
colors to be indicated by a special term, with some peoples having no names at all 
for blue other than "like the sky." 

Language is, however, an uncertain measure of the quaUty of color perception. 
The African pygmies of the Ituri forest in the Belgian Congo have no specific name 
for green, which is "like the leaves," and differing colors dark in value are all 
regarded as black, yet they make clear distinctions among particular shades of 
colors such as white and brown, distinctions that are not always apparent to our 
own differently conditioned eyes (No. 178 ) . Terminologies may be simply a means 
for vocal expression of a much deeper color-perception process that involves sev- 
eral of the senses, a unity of function to a point where one is able to say "not that 
my senses but that I perceive," red or blue or green. This unity, or synesthesia, 
has no agreed-upon physical or even metaphysical explanation, yet it has been 
recognized as a phenomenon since at least the time of Aristotle, and the numerous 
attempts throughout history to create a color music have been one of its chief 
visible symbols. The symbolist poets felt the impress of synesthesia: Mallarme 
speaks of "des yeux bleus et froids," and Rimbaud's sonnet. The Vowels, begins 
"A noir, E blanc, I rouge, O vert, U bleu." Involuntary reactions to color, like 
those of the factory v/orkers who became easily excited and tired quickly when the 
factory's windows were covered with red, and who reacted conversely when the red 
was replaced by green, may also be a form of synesthesia. 

In spite of psychological conditioning on the part of advertising, the "consumers" 
of color still have color preferences that are synesthetic in origin. Colors are 
"warm," "cold," "hard," and "soft," and as one person views a particular color as 
warm, another sees it as cold. Preference even extends to a point where one who 
favors warm colors will choose warm shades of such cool colors as green and blue, 
and another who favors cool colors will have a reverse preference. Individual color 
preferences are part of a larger, a mass preference and each feeds on the other. 


Color choice is subject to influences that are entirely non-psychic in origin; imagin- 
ative theatrical costuming, the paucity of dyes and pigments in wartime, technical 
developments in creating new colors and developments in lighting techniques that 
affect the appearances of color, and even the arbitrary preference of a public 
personality. Geography and climate affect the color choice of whole groups of 
peoples. Strong, constant sunlight requires colors of strong intensity; any others 
are visually ineffective. 

Through a mysterious interaction of all these forces, certain colors become 
fashion, a process so real that not only decades but centuries are often conceived 
in terms of particular colors. Within these arbitrarily defined units, fashion is 
never still, constantly shifting, but shifting in what appears as quite definite cycles 
(No. 286). "Kitchens and bathrooms were a porcelain and surgical white. Furni- 
ture was in natural wood tints, surfaced with colorless finish . . . things were, so to 
speak, as God made them — each object deriving its color from the material of 
which it was fashioned. . . . Turn now to the thoroughly painted home of 1928. 
. . . This quotation from Fortune of February, 1930, could easily have been written 
m 1960, and the "thoroughly painted home" not 1928 but 1958. A general color 
cycle has been repeated and will doubtless be repeated again. 

While the directional movement of color cycles may correspond to the color 
order of the spectrum, there appears to be a very definite correlation of color fash- 
ions among clothing, interior decoration and, today, even automobiles, but it is 
diSicult to say which sets the pace, how the influences are really transmitted, or 
whether each maintains a color cycle that is actually independent of its relatives, 
all questions in which psychology and its commercial periphery have indistinguish- 
able roles. 

As the data of psychology aim to lift scientific reason out of psyche's chaos, 
psychology must nevertheless always adjust, even submit to the forces of irration- 
ahty and become a part, with symbolism and language, of metaphysics. While the 
physics of color — color as light — and color chemistry — the creation of color 
through chemical means — are measurable, predictable, and to an extent control- 
lable, the metaphysics of color, the complex reactions we have to color and why 
we have them, represent the final, and determining, stage in our perception of color. 

Edward Kallop 



Color and Light 

Demonstrations in this section have been de- 
veloped by Professor Milton Stecher of the 
Physics Department, Cooper Union School of 
Engineering, except where otherwise noted. 

1. Demonstration of the prismatic refrac- 
tion of light into its spectrum; Incite 

2. Candelabrum; cut glass, ormolu, Wedg- 
wood jasperware; England; about 1785; 
Cooper Union Museum 

3. Natural calcite crystal showing color 
fringes due to air space at cleavage sur- 

4. Demonstration of Newton's Rings, spec- 
tral colors produced by interference 

5. Two optical flats showing the interfer- 
ence of light rays 

6. Colored point light sources seen through 
two-dimensional diffraction grating pro- 
vided by 200-mesh wire cloth 

7. Additive mixture of light; overlapping 
beams of red, blue and green light pro- 
duce white light in region of overlap 

8. Demonstration of the disposition of 
phosphors on a color television screen; 
Radio Corporation of America 

9. Subtractive mixture of light; filters of 
magenta, cyan and yellow produce black 
in region of overlap 

10. Neon, argon and helium gases produc- 
ing colored light alone and in interac- 
tion with phosphors and colored glass; 
Coming Glass Center 

11. Sheet diffraction grating, 13,400 lines per 
inch, used for measurement of wave- 
lengths in the visible spectrum; to be used 
to view the discrete and continuous spec- 
trum of half-phosphored fluorescent tube 

12. Half-phosphored fluorescent lamp; de- 
monstrating the use of a coating of phos- 
phors, which absorbs the radiant energy 
of the discrete wave-lengths in the spec- 

trum of mercury vapor and remits this 
energy in a continuous spectrum which 
appears white 

13. Spectrometer; measures the wave-length 
of light 

14. Dark field kaleidoscope; made and lent 
by Professor MUton Stecher 

15. Mechanical polaroid kaleidoscope; Sun 
Chemical Corporation 

16. Kaleidoscope projection; Tom Lee, Ltd. 

17. Polarized Light Machine; made by Han- 
nes Beckmann; Cooper Union Art School 

Visual Phenomena and Color Perception 

18. HRR, (Hardy-Rand-Rittler), color per- 
ception test; American Optical Com- 
pany, Instrument Division 

19. Textile fragment; silk compound satin; 
Spain, Mudejar; 15th century; Cooper 
Union Museum 

20. Textile fragment; brocaded silk and 
metal compound cloth; Spain; 14th cen- 
tury; Cooper Union Museum 

21. Series of five paintings. Five Aspects of 
Scarlet; oil on canvas; Ben Cunningham 
(1904- ); United States; 1950; Ben 

22. Bookpaper, decorated paper for book- 
lining; Turkey; 20th century; Cooper 
Union Museum 

23. Demonstration of after-image of com- 
plementary color; half-black, half-white 
disc with notch on periphery through 
which red light is seen when rotated one 
way, shows green when rotated in other 
direction; Physics Department, Cooper 
Union School of Engineering 

24. Section of woman's blouse; applique and 
patchwork; cotton; Panama, San Bias 
Islands; 20th century; Cooper Union 

25. Painting, The Scroll; oil and wood strips 
on wood; Hannes Beckmann (1909- ); 
United States, New York; 1956; Hannes 


26. Textile length, Cutout; printed cotton; 
designed by Alexander Girard; produced 
by Herman Miller, Inc.; United States, 
New York; 1956; Cooper Union Mu- 

27. Chart; additive and subtractive films; 
Cooper Union Art School 

28. Chart; ten examples of volume color; 
Cooper Union Art School 

29. Chart; eighteen-step grey scale; Cooper 
Union Art School 

30. Chart; subtractive and additive films; 
Cooper Union Art School 

31. Chart; volume color and temperature 
change; Cooper Union Art School 

32. Chart; shadow on color, light on color; 
Cooper Union Art School 

33. Chart; blue film over eight hues; Cooper 
Union Art School 

34. Chart; hues, tints, shades, tones; Cooper 
Union Art School 

35. Chart; demonstration of luminous color 
and additive color mixture; Cooper 
Union Art School 

36. Progressive steps in the design of textile 
weaving; stones, leaves, pastel color rub- 
bings, woven textile swatches; designed 
and lent by Helen KroU Kramer 

37. Painting, Ultra-violet Hallucination; oil 
on canvas; Ben Cunningham (1904- 

) ; United States, New York; 1959; 
Ben Cunningham 

38. Studies in luminosity and vibration; 
Cooper Union Art School 

39. Painting, Modes of Appearance of Color 
— Surface, Film and Volume; oil on can- 
vas; Ben Cunningham (1904- ); 
United States; 1951; Ben Cunningham 

40. Book, De la Loi du Contraste Simultane 
des Couleurs; M. E. Chevreul; France, 
Paris; 1839; Dr. Sidney M. Edelstein 

41. Book, Chromagraphie ou I'Art de Com- 
poser un Dessin; Rouget de Lisle; France, 
Paris; 1839; Dr. Sidney M. Edelstein 

Nature and Color Chemistry 

42. Group of shells; The American Museum 
of Natural History 

43. Group of minerals; steatite, turquoise, 
lapis lazuli, azurite, malachite, cinnabar, 
camotite, red clay, jasper, agate, sulphur, 
tourmaline, labradorite; The American 
Museum of Natural History 

44. Ceramic jar containing cinnabar (ochre 
pigment); Mexico, Tlatilco; 800 B.C.; 
The American Museum of Natural His- 

45. Cosmetic jar containing kohl (antimony) ; 
serpentine; The Brooklyn Museum 

46. Cosmetic jar containing kohl ( antimony) ; 
anhydrite; Egypt; 12th dynasty (2000- 
1800 B.C.); The Brooklyn Museum 

47. Cosmetic jar containing kohl (antimony); 
alabaster; Egypt; 18th dynasty (1500- 
1350 B.C.); The Brooklyn Museum 

48. Cosmetics; eye shadows, lipsticks, mas- 
cara pencils, hair rinses, loose and com- 
pact powders; Helena Rubinstein 

49. Raw cosmetic pigments; H. Kohnstamm 
& Company, Inc. 

50. Slate palette with bits of green pigment 
adhering; Egypt, Mezaideh; pre-dynastic 
(3400-3200 B.C.); The Brooklyn Mu- 

51. Pigments; yellow and red ochre, light 
blue and cobalt frit; Egypt, Tell-el- 
Amarna (1355-1317 B.C.); The Brook- 
lyn Museum 

52. Scribe's palette with red and black pig- 
ments adhering; wood; Egypt, Thebes; 
New Kingdom (1300-1100 B.C.); The 
Brooklyn Museum 

53. Jar; reduction-fired unglazed red clay; 
Egypt; pre-dynastic (4000-3500 B.C.); 
The Brooklyn Museum 

54. Bes amulet; Egyptian paste; copper car- 
bonate colorant; 20th century recon- 
struction of early Egyptian ceramic tech- 
niques by Anthony Giambalvo at The 
Brooklyn Museum Research Laboratory; 
The Brooklyn Museum 

55. Fish bowl; porcelain with underglaze 
decoration; China; Ming dynasty (1368- 
1644); Cooper Union Museum 

56. Book, UArt de L'Indigotier, from the 
series. Arts et Metiers; M. de Beauvais 


Raseau; France, Paris; 1770; Dr. Sidney 
M. Edelstein 

57. Textile, Pheasant in Foliage', cotton, in- 
digo resist-printed; England or United 
States; late 18th century; Cooper Union 

58. TextUe border; linen, embroidered in in- 
digo- and madder-dyed silk threads; Tur- 
key, Bokhara; 18th or 19th century; 
Cooper Union Museum 

59. Playing cards; indigo and other inks on 
paper; Japan; 19th century; Jan Kindler 

60. Shells; murex brandaris; The American 
Museum of Natural History 

61. Textile fragment; linen with stripes of 
Tyrian purple, (murex-dyed,) wool; 
Middle East; Palmyra; 83 or 103 A.D.; 
William J. Young 

62. Bridal shirt; murex-dyed cotton; Mexico, 
Pacific coast of Middle America; 20th 
century; The American Museum of Nat- 
ural History 

63. Murex-dyed yarn; Pacific coast of Middle 
America; 20th century; Junius B. Bird 

64. Photographs of Middle American In- 
dians dyeing cloth with murex; The 
American Museum of Natural History 

65. Photograph of purple dye pits stUl show- 
ing traces of murex dye; Lebanon, Jubail 
(ancient Byblos); Arthur Damask 

66. Raw glazes and fired glaze samples; 
American Art Clay Company 

67. Plates showing underglaze cobalt; United 
States, Syracuse; Onandaga Pottery Com- 

68. Vase; cobalt glaze; Adelaide Robineau 
(1865-1929); United States, Syracuse; 
second quarter 20th century; Ever son 
Museum of Art 

69. Shallow bowl; stoneware, copper and 
cobalt glaze; United States; mid-20th 
century; Everson Museum of Art 

70. Beaker; earthenware, crazed copper 
glaze; Theodore Deck (1823-1891); 
France; late 19th century; Cooper Union 

71. Covered urn; lavender blue and white 
jasperware; Josiah Wedgwood; England; 

late 18th century; Mr. and Mrs. Byron 
A. Bom 

72. Mocha set; porcelain, cobalt glaze, silver 
and wood mounting; France; about 1925; 
Cooper Union Museum 

73. Wallpaper colonette; printed from wood 
blocks; France; about 1825; Cooper 
Union Museum 

74. Patent issued for William Henry Perkin's 
mauve; England; 1856; Dr. Samuel 

75. Textile fragment; brocaded silk taffeta 
dyed with fuchsine; France (?); 1870- 
1890; Cooper Union Museum 

76. Textile; silk compound cloth, dyed with 
fuchsine; France; late 19th century; 
Cooper Union Museum 

77. Sample book, Simpson, Maule & Nichol- 
son's Patent Aniline Dyes, 1865; Dr. 
Sidney M. Edelstein 

78. Chair; baked enamel on metal, seat of 
cotton cloth; Eero Saarinen; United 
States, Pennsylvania; 1959; Knoll As- 

79. Wallpaper pilaster and cornice. Peche, 
from the series La Chasse; printed from 
wood blocks; Jules Desfosse; France, 
Paris; about 1860; Cooper Union Mu- 

80. Textile, Pythagoras; printed linen; Sven 
Markelius; mid-20th century; Knoll As- 

81. Sample pieces of pulp paper, wool, silk, 
leather and aluminum each dyed with 
alizarin blue GRL; AJlied Chemical Cor- 
poration, National Aniline Division 

82. Molding powders of phenol-formalde- 
hyde resin for the making of Bakelite; 
Union Carbide Plastics Company 

83. Dry pigments; Allied Chemical Corpora- 
tion, National Aniline Division, Harmon 

84. Vinyl coated cloth for automobile up- 
holstery; Canadian Industries, Ltd., Fab- 
rikoid Division 

85. Vinyl wall covering, Vicartex; embossed; 
L. E. Carpenter Company 


86. Printed aluminum foil wrapping; Reyn- 
olds Metal Company 

87. Acetate yarns, Celaperm; dope-dyed; 
Celanese Corporation 

88. Viscose yams; dope-dyed; American Vis- 
cose Corporation 

89. Automobile paint color samples; Allied 
Chemical Corporation, National Aniline 
Division, Harmon Colors 

90. Graded series of painted oil cans; Sears 
Roebuck and Company 

91. Color chips of anodized aluminum; Alu- 
minum Company of America 

92. Three isomeric dye formulas, with ex- 
amples of their dyeings on cotton; Allied 
Chemical Corporation, National Aniline 

93. Papers for packaging food stuffs, dyed 
with United States Government certified 
food colorants; Allied Chemical Cor- 
poration, National Aniline Division 

94. Cigar box labels. None Better, Harry's, 
Bracelet and Aetna; chromolithographs; 
United States; about 1880; Jan Kindler 

95. Progressive proofs of four-color print- 
ing; Horan Engraving Company, Inc.; 
United States, New York; 1949; Cooper 
Union Museum 

96. Wood block print, Shono Rain, from the 
series The Fifty-Three Stations of the 
Tokaido Road; Hiroshige (1797-1858); 
Japan; about 1834; Cooper Union Mu- 

97. Progressive steps in wood block print- 
ing; Japan; 20th century; Cooper Union 

98. Tear sheets of color mixtures for news- 
paper letterpress; Sun Chemical Cor- 

99. Transparent film printed in flexographic 
ink; Sun Chemical Corporation 

100. Vase; free-blown and panelled glass; 
United States; 1840-1860; The Corning 
Museum of Glass 

101. Goblet; opaque and clear free-blown 
glass; Salviati & Company; Italy, Venice; 
1860-1880; Cooper Union Museum 

102. CuUets of colored glass; Corning Glass 

103. Panel of leaded stained and painted glass, 
Annunciation; France; 13th century; 
French & Company 

104. Demonstration of biological stains ap- 
plied to various tissues for the purpose of 
exposing foreign material; Allied Chem- 
ical Corporation, National Aniline Di- 

Meaning and Pleasure in Color 

105. Painting, Mysteres de la Mer; oil on can- 
vas; Odilon Redon (1840-1916); France, 
Paris; about 1910; The New Gallery 

106. Painting, Man on Horseback; watercolor 
on paper; Odilon Redon (1840-1916); 
France, Paris; about 1905; Mr. and Mrs. 
Eugene Thaw 

107. Toilet bottle; marbled glass; France; 17th 
century; Cooper Union Museum 

108. Bookpaper; marbled and combed; pro- 
duced by La Maison de Beau Papier; 
France; about 1950; Cooper Union Mu- 

109. Amulet, the deity Bes; faience; Egypt; 
late dynastic (500-300 B.C.); Mathias 

110. Fragments; striped cane glass; Egypt; 
The Corning Museum of Glass 

111. Composite glass eye; Egypt; 1st millen- 
nium B.C.; The Brooklyn Museum 

112. Glass inlay, lower portion of a seated 
deity; Egypt; Ptolemaic (300-100 B.C.); 
The Brooklyn Museum 

113. Fragment of a glass vessel; cane glass; 
from the tomb of King Tuthomosis III 
(1490-1436 B.C.); Egypt; about 1450 
B.C.; The Brooklyn Museum 

114. Cane glass inlay square, rosette decora- 
tion; Egypt; 1st century A.D.; The Brook- 
lyn Museum 

115. Sistrum handle; faience; Egypt; Ptole- 
maic (4th to 3rd century B.C.); The 
Brooklyn Museum 

116. Figure, Silenus (?); faience; Egypt; late 
Ptolemaic or early Roman; The Brook- 
lyn Museum 


117. Rose in a glass; rhodonite, jade, rock, 
crystal, gold; Carl Faberge (1846-1920) ; 
Russia, St. Petersburg; late 19th-early 
20th century; A la Vieille Russie, Inc. 

118. Vase; smoky topaz rock crystal, gold 
base; Carl Faberge (1846-1920); Russia, 
St. Petersburg; late 19th-early 20th cen- 
tury; A la Vieille Russie, Inc. 

119. Clock; lapis-lazuli, enamel, gold; Carl 
Faberge (1846-1920); Russia, St. Peters- 
burg; late 19th-early 20th century; A la 
Vieille Russie, Inc. 

120. Flask; blown and cut glass; Iran; 9th- 
10th century; Cooper Union Museum 

121. Vase; free-blown Favrile glass; Louis 
Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933); United 
States, New York; about 1890-1900; 
Cooper Union Museum 

1 22. Scarab; molded Favrile glass; Louis Com- 
fort Tiffany (1848-1933); United States, 
New York; 1880-1890; Cooper Union 

123. Weight and fragment of a weight; black 
glass; Middle East; 7th to 10th century 
A.D.; The Corning Museum of Glass 

124. Pair of earrings; gold, hummingbirds' 
heads, glass eyes; France, Paris; mid- 
19th century; Cooper Union Museum 

125. Beetles; Jan Kindler 

126. Scarf; silk, blue warp, green weft; India; 
late 19th century; Cooper Union Mu- 

127. Ceremonial apron; beetle wings, toucan 
and hummingbird feathers, human hair, 
monkey, jaguar and peccary teeth, nuts 
and seeds; eastern Ecuador, Jivaro In- 
dians; 20th century; The American Mu- 
seum of Natural History 

128. Painting, Homage to the Square from 
Afar; oil on composition board; Josef 
Albers (1888- ) ; United States, Con- 
necticut; 1959; Sidney Janis Gallery 

129. Ceremonial comb; wood, parrot and 
toucan feathers; Brazil, Rio Bianco area, 
Uapixana tribe; 20th century; The Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History 

130. Preserved Quetzal bird; habitat, Mexico 

and Central America; The American 
Museum of Natural History 

131. Headdress; macaw and toucan feathers, 
raffia; eastern Ecuador, Jivaro Indians; 
20th century; The American Museum of 
Natural History 

132. Tanka (Buddhist ceremonial banner); 
tempera painting on cotton; Tibet; 19th 
century; The Newark Museum 

133. Textile fragment; wool, double-faced 
warp-patterned weave; Peru, Tiahuanaco; 
1000-1300; Cooper Union Museum 

134. Textile panel; wool slit tapestry; Peru, 
Central Coast; about 15th century; 
Cooper Union Museum 

135. Textile braid; embroidered wool; Peru, 
Southern Coast; Nazca; 5th to 7th cen- 
turies A.D.; Mrs. Penelope Strouth 

136. Water bottle; Peru, Paracas; 3rd to 2nd 
century B.C.; The American Museum of 
Natural History 

137. Water jar; Peru; Nazca; 1st to 4th cen- 
turies A.D.; The American Museum of 
Natural History 

138. Water jar, stirrup spout; Peru; Nazca; 
4th to 5th century A.D.; The American 
Museum of Natural History 

139. Twined cotton fragments, among the 
oldest known textiles of the New World; 
Peru, Chicama Valley, Huaca Prieta; 
2500-1200 B.C.; The American Museum 
of Natural History 

140. Shawl; wool embroidered, plain and in- 
terlocking twill; India, Kashmir; mid- 
19th century; Cooper Union Museum 

141. Shawl; wool, interlocking twill; North 
India; 18th century; Cooper Union Mu- 

142. Camel; gold, champleve enamel, lacquer, 
diamond chips; India; Mughal period, 
about 1800; The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art; gift of the Shaw Foundation, Inc., 

143. Miniature painting, Krishna at the feet 
of Radha, and Radha's friend pleading to 
her to receive Krishna; paint on paper; 
Rajasthani or Gujerati School; India, 
Rajput period; about 1630; The Metro- 


politan Museum of Art; Rogers Fund, 

144. Miniature painting, Ragmala, Peacocks 
Attracted by the sound of music; Ra- 
jasthani School; India, Rajput period; 
about 1600; The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art; Rogers Fund, 1918 

145. Painted and lacquered wood box, Court 
scenes; painted metal hinges and lock; 
India; Mughal period, 18th century; The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art; Rogers 
Fund, 1958 

146. Playing card; painted leather; India; 
about 1840; Jan Kindler 

147. Vase; tin-enameled earthenware; France, 
Nevers; mid- 18th century; Cooper Union 

148. Vase; porcelain, underglaze decoration; 
China; Ch'ing dynasty, Ch'ien Lung 
period (1736-1795); Cooper Union Mu- 

149. Jug; tin-enamelled earthenware; Ger- 
many, Ansbach; mid- 1 8th century; Cooper 
Union Museum 

150. Bottle; opaque blown glass with applied 
glass threads; Europe; 18th century; The 
Corning Museum of Glass 

151. Dish; earthenware; underglaze decora- 
tion; Persia; 13th century; The Metro- 
politan Museum of Art; Gift of Horace 
Havemayer, 1945 

152. Vase; free-blown, cased and acid-etched 
glass; Emile Galle (1846-1904); France, 
Nancy; 1885-1900; The Corning Mu- 
seum of Glass 

153. Vase; free-blown, cased and acid-etched; 
Emile Galle (1846-1904); France, Nancy; 
about 1900; Cooper Union Museum 

154. Bowl; colorless and clouded green glass; 
carved decoration; Frangois Decorche- 
mont (1880- ); France; first half 20th 
century; The Corning Museum of Glass 

155. Ceramic bowl, Chiin ware, reduced cop- 
per glaze; China; Sung dynasty (960- 
1260); The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art; Fletcher Fund, 1925 

156. Bark cloth; mud-dyed; Belgian Congo, 
Ituri Forest, BaMbuti (Pygmy) aborigi- 

nals; The American Museum of Natural 

157. Vase; Chiin ware, stoneware, reduced 
copper glaze; China; Yiian dynasty 
(1260-1368); Mathias Komor 

158. Bowl; Chiin ware, stoneware, reduced 
copper glaze; China; Yiian dynasty 
(1260-1368); The Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art; Fletcher Fund, 1925 

159. Dish; soft paste, mark of painter Jacques 
Fontaine; France, Vincennes; before 
1753; The Antique Porcelain Company, 

160. Bowl; frit, painted decorations; Egypt; 
19th dynasty (1349-1197 B.C.); Cooper 
Union Museum 

161. Pair of pendant ornaments for the head; 
gold alloy, turquoise, pearls, amethyst, 
coral; Tibet, Lhasa; 19th century; The 
Newark Museum 

162. Pendant; gold, turquoise, tin; Tibet; 18th 
century; Cooper Union Museum 

163. Vase; Rakka ware; black underglaze dec- 
oration; Persia (?); 12th-13th century; 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Be- 
quest of Horace Havemeyer, 1956 

164. Vase; stoneware, Persian blue glaze, in- 
cised decoration; China; Ming dynasty 
(1368-1644); The Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art; H. O. Havemeyer Collec- 
tion, bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 

165. Painted miniature, Sharaf* ad Din 'Ali 
Yazdi, Battle scene; School of Herat; 
Persia; Timurid period, late 15th cen- 
tury; The Metropolitan Museum of Art; 
Rogers Fund, 1943 

166. Tile; earthenware, lustre-painted; Iran, 
Kashan; 13th century; Cooper Union 

167. Bottle; earthenware, cobalt blue glaze, 
metallic oxides (lustre) ; Persia; first half 
17th century; The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art; Rogers Fund, 1903 

168. Rose-water sprinkler; glass; Persia; 17th 
century; The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art; Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917 

169. Ewer; opaque glass, free blown with ap- 


plied decoration; Spain; probably 18th 
century; The Corning Museum of Glass 

170. Carved ostrich egg; oval medallions re- 
presenting the Four Continents; Ger- 
many, Franconia; 17th century; Cooper 
Union Museum 

171. Bowl; clouded glass; Rene Lalique (1860- 
1945); France, Comes-la-Ville; about 
1914; Cooper Union Museum 

172. Bowl; Mishima ware (inlaid stoneware); 
Korea; 12th-13th century; Miss Dorothy 

173. Dance mask; painted wood, raffia, cowrie 
shells, beads; Africa; 19th century; Ma- 
thias Komor 

174. Textile length; cotton-backed silk checked 
panne velvet; France (?); 19th century; 
Cooper Union Museum 

175. Five fragments of cups or bowls; lat- 
ticinio glass; Egypt or Italy; 1st century 
B.C.; The Corning Museum of Glass 

176. Amphora ; glazed stoneware ; China ; T'ang 
dynasty (618-905); Cooper Union Mu- 

177. Scarf; silk, designed by James H. W. 
Thompson; Thailand; mid-20th century; 
Miss Ruth Marton 

178. Bark cloth; Belgian Congo, Ituri Forest, 
BaMbuti (Pygmy) aboriginals; 20th cen- 
tury; Colin TumbuU 

179. Bowl; porcelain, underglaze with enamel 
overglaze decoration; China; probably 
17th century; The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art; purchase by subscription, 1 879 

180. Covered tureen on stand; soft paste; 
France, Vincennes; about 1750; The 
Antique Porcelain Company, Inc. 

181. Waterpot (for use with solid ink slab); 
porcelain, peach bloom glaze; China; 
K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722) ; The Met- 
ropolitan Museum of Art; H. O. Have- 
meyer Collection, bequest of Mrs. H. O. 
Havemeyer, 1929 

182. Vase; porcelain; Japan; 19th century; 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Gift 
of Charles Stewart Smith, 1893 

183. Tea bowl; raku ware (low-fired earthen- 
ware); Japan; 17th-18th century; The 

Metropolitan Museum of Art; Rogers 
Fund, 1917 

184. Vase; porcelain, flambe glaze; Adelaide 
Robineau (1865-1929); United States, 
Syracuse; early 20th century; Everson 
Museum of Art 

185. Painting, Reading Nude; gouache; Rob- 
ert Delaunay (1885-1941); France; 1915; 
Fine Arts Associates 

186. Vase; opaque glass, free-blown, carved; 
China; Ch'ing dynasty, probably 19th 
century; The Corning Museum of Glass 

187. Vase; opaque glass, free-blown, carved; 
China; Ch'ing dynasty, Ch'ien Lung 
period (1736-1795); The Corning Mu- 
seum of Glass 

188. Pair of potpourri groups; soft paste; rose 
Pompadour glaze; France, Vincennes; 
about 1750; The Antique Porcelain Com- 
pany, Inc. 

189. Vase; Favrile glass, free-blown; Louis 
Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933); about 
1900; Cooper Union Museum 

190. Headdress ornament; kingfisher feathers, 
lacquer; China; about 1900; Cooper 
Union Museum 

191. Court lady's summer robe; silk gauze; 
China; early 20th century; The Metro- 
politan Museum of Art; Rogers Fund, 

192. Fan; ivory, silk, kingfisher feathers; 
China; mid- 19th century; Cooper Union 

193. Hanging bird cage; carved and inlaid; 
ivory, jade, woods, nickel alloy, with 
accessories of ceramic, amber, coral, 
turquoise, amethyst quartz, kingfisher 
feathers, jade, ivory and enamelled met- 
al; China; Ch'ing dynasty, Ch'ien Lung 
period (1735-1796); Cooper Union Mu- 

194. Painting, The Twist; oil on canvas; 
Hannes Beckmann (1909- ); 1960; 
Hannes Beckmann 

195. Illuminated manuscript, missal, Nativity; 
Franco-Flemish; about 1470; The Art 
Museum, Princeton University 

196. Illuminated letter B, cut out, Pentecost; 




Italy, Lombardy; about 1480; The Art 
Museum, Princeton University 
Illuminated manuscript, psalter, Christ 
Rising from the Tomb; Germany, Augs- 
burg (?); about 1250; The Art Museum, 
Princeton University 
Gable from a reliquary. Coronation of 
the Virgin; enamel on metal; France, 
Limoges; 13th century; The Art Mu- 
seum, Princeton University 

Systems, Terminology and Color 



Book, Des Couleurs E. Chevreul; France, 
Paris; 1864; Dr. Sidney M. Edelstein 
CIE (Commission Internationale d'E- 
clairage) color solid; plots position of 
selected colors in 9 planes on superim- 
posed chromaticity diagram; Union Car- 
bide Plastics Company 

201. Ostwald color solid; chips from the Color 
Harmony Manual arranged in 12 hue 
leaves with 28 variations for each hue; 
Container Corporation of America 

202. Munsell color tree; ten major hues in a 
three-dimensional relationship based on 
hue, value and chroma; Munsell Color 
Company, Inc. 

203. Constant hue chart; blue to yellow; Mun- 
sell Color Company, Inc. 

204. Hue circuit; ten major hues at maximum 
chroma; Munsell Color Company, Inc. 

205. Natural value scale; nine gradations be- 
tween white and black; Munsell Color 
Company, Inc. 

206. Chroma scale; seven gradations of chro- 
ma for red; Munsell Color Company, 

207. Ostwald hue circuit; hues arranged in 
complementary relationship; Cooper 
Union Art School 

208. Ostwald color triad; blue to yellow; 
Cooper Union Art School 

209. Color fan; Dorothy Nickerson; fan ar- 
rangement of Munsell Color hues; Mun- 
sell Color Company, Inc. 

210. Chromaticity diagram; National Bureau 
of Standards 

211. ASA (American Standards Association) 
Safety Color Code with CIE chromatic- 
ity diagram; National Bureau of Stand- 

212. Demonstration of lighting intensity on 
color; Large Lamp Department, General 
Electric Company 

213. Textile; compound silk; France, Lyons; 
1830-1850; Cooper Union Museum 

214. Color names in chemistry; correlation on 
color names based on the ISCC-NBS 
(Inter-Society Color Council — National 
Bureau of Standards) Dictionary of 
Color Names; National Bureau of Stand- 

215. Painting, Some Dimensions and Direc- 
tions of Color; oil on wood with applied 
string; Hilaire Hiler (1898- ); United 
States; 1948; Mrs. David Glieberman 

216. New color scale for petroleum products; 
National Bureau of Standards 

217. Rapid-scanning spectrophotometer; 
American Optical Company, Instrument 

218. Textile weavings based on Munsell Color 
System; Mrs. Luis F. Vela 

219. Weaver's blanket, design composition in 
color and weave; made by Pola Stout for 
J. P. Stevens Company; Pola Stout 

220. Trinket box; arms of the Dand and Bas- 
net families, court scene, trees and birds 
in solid beadwork; Frances Dand Basnet; 
England, Coventry; 1630; Cooper Union 

221. Armorial hanging with arms of France 
and Navarre; tapestry; Gobelins; France, 
Paris; late 17th century; The Metropoli- 
tan Museum of Art; gift of Mrs. Lionel 
F. Straus; 1953; in memory of Lionel F. 

Color and Human Response 

222. Wallpaper, Les Deux Pigeons; printed 
from wood blocks; Jean Baptiste Reveill- 
on; France, Paris; about 1785; Cooper 
Union Museum 

223. Textile pilaster from a series of wall 
hangings; ribbed silk embroidered in 


silk and metal; made at the Palazzo Al- 
bicini; Italy, Forli; about 1700; French 
& Company 

224. Textile; printed cotton; Christophe Phil- 
ippe Oberkampf (1738-1815); France, 
Jouy; late 18th century; Cooper Union 

225. Chair; carved and painted wood; in the 
style of Michelangelo Pergolesi (active 
1774-1801); England; about 1795; 
Cooper Union Museum 

226. TextUe; silk damask; Italy, Venice; early 
18th century; Cooper Union Museum 

227. Textile; silk damask; France or Italy; 
18th century; Cooper Union Museum 

228. Textile; silk taffeta brocaded; England, 
Spitalfields; 1st half 18th century; Cooper 
Union Museum 

229. Wallpaper pilaster and cornice, Jardin 
d'Hiver; printed from woodblocks; 
Charles L. L. MuUer; manufactured by 
Jules Defosse; France, Paris; 1851-1855; 
Cooper Union Museum 

230. Length of carpeting; wool, jute; United 
States, Ohio; before 1860; Cooper Union 

231. Vase; glass overlaid and cameo-cut; 
Thomas Faraday (1854-1942); manu- 
factured by Thomas Webb & Sons; Eng- 
land, Stourbridge; about 1890; Cooper 
Union Museum 

232. Pendant; gold, garnet, enamel, rose dia- 
monds, pearls; United States; mid- 19th 
century; Cooper Union Museum 

233. Design for the North Wall of the Music 
Room of the Royal Pavilion at Brighton; 
water color on paper; Frederick Crace 
(1779-1859); England; 1818-1819; 
Cooper Union Museum 

234. Textile, Venice; compound silk satin; 
Robert Bonfils; manufactured by Bian- 
chini Ferier; France, Paris or Lyons; 
1925; Cooper Union Museum 

235. Book, Les Choses de Paul Poiret; Georges 
Lepape; printed by Maquet; France, 
Paris; 1911; Cooper Union Library 

236. Textile; silk and metal cut and uncut 
velvet; H. A. Elsberg; France, Lyons; 

1910-1915; Cooper Union Museum 

237. Book, Robes et Femmes; Enrico Sac- 
chetti; printed by Dorbon-Aine; France, 
Paris; 1913; Cooper Union Library 

238. Book, Decoration in Color; printed by 
J. Hoffmann; Germany, Stuttgart; 1927; 
Cooper Union Library 

239. Wallpaper; printed from woodblocks; 
Rene Crevel; France; 1920; Cooper 
Union Museum 

240. Wallpaper; printed from woodblocks; 
Rene Crevel; France; 1920; Cooper 
Union Museum 

241. Wallpaper; printed from woodblocks; 
Rene Crevel; France; 1920; Cooper 
Union Museum 

242. Bowl; reduction glaze; Gertrud and Otto 
Natzler; United States, California; about 
1950; Everson Museum of Art 

243. Chair; transparent lacquer on wood, cot- 
ton slip seat; John Van Koert; manufac- 
tured by Heywood- Wakefield Company; 
United States; 1959; Heywood-Wakefield 

244. Vinyl tiles; Amtico; American Biltrite 
Rubber Company 

245. Textile, Campo Lindo; printed linen; 
United States; 1959; Jack Lenor Larsen, 

246. Textile; printed linen; Sven Markelius; 
United States; about 1955; Knoll Asso- 

247. Textile; printed linen; Ross Lytell; United 
States; about 1955; Knoll Associates 

248. Painting, Joseph's Coat; oil on canvas; 
Ben Cunningham (1904- ); United 
States; 1949; Ben Cunningham 

249. Theatre costume from The King and I; 
Irene Sharaff; made by the Brooks Cos- 
tume Company; United States; 1951; 
Rodgers and Hammerstein 

250. Textile; brocaded piiia fiber gauze; Phil- 
ippine Islands; about 1930; Cooper Union 

251. Textile; checked pina fiber gauze; Phil- 
ippine Islands; 19th century; Cooper 
Union Museum 

252. Tablecloth; embroidered sheer cotton; 


Ceylon; early 20th century; Cooper 
Union Museum 

253. Scarf; silk ikat (tied and dyed warp 
threads) in diamond pattern; Thailand; 
20th century; Cooper Union Museum 

254. Scarf; silk square; James H. W. Thomp- 
son; Thailand; mid-20th century; Miss 
Ruth Marton 

255. Textile, Midsummer; printed linen; Don 
Wight; United States; about 1954; Jack 
Lenor Larsen, Inc. 

256. Textile, Obelisk; printed linen; Jack Le- 
nor Larsen; United States; about 1958; 
Jack Lenor Larsen, Inc. 

257. TextUe; hand-loomed silk; Thailand; 
mid-20th century; Thaibok, Inc. 

258. Textile; hand-loomed silk; Thailand; 
mid-20th century; Thaibok, Inc. 

259. Textile; hand-loomed silk; Thailand; 
mid-20th century; Thaibok, Inc. 

260. Wallpaper, Baroque Stripe; Jack Lenor 
Larsen; United States; 1960; Karl Mann 

261. Wallpaper, Citadel; Jack Lenor Larsen; 
United States; 1960; Karl Mann Asso- 

262. Chalice, Ronald Pearson (1925- ); 
silver, parcel-gilt, cast cup pierced with 
plique - a - jour enamel; United States, 
Rochester; 1959; Museum of Contempo- 
rary Crafts 

263. Playing cards; France; 18th century; 
Jan Kindler 

264. Playing cards. Steamboat Deck; United 
States; about 1860; Jan Kindler 

265. Playing cards; A. M. Cassandre; France, 
Paris; 1947; Jan Kindler 

266. Kian, embroidered textile; hemp on 
ramie, metal; Sumatra; late 19th cen- 
tury; Cooper Union Museum 

267. Red head and black leg; glass inlays; 
Egypt; late Ptolemaic period (323-30 
B.C.); The Corning Museum of Glass 

268. Wedding shoes; leather, wool and metal; 
India, Rajasthan, Udaipur; mid-20th cen- 
tury; Oppi Untracht 

269. Chasuble, worn during periods of plague; 
cotton, resist-printed, linen, gold strips; 

Spain; 18th century; Cooper Union Mu- 

270. Bracelet; coral, gold and turquoise; Italy; 
about 1 870; Cooper Union Museum 

271. Bracelet; coral and gold; Italy; about 
1850; Cooper Union Museum 

272. Head ornament; silver and imitation 
coral; Tibet; probably 20th century; The 
Newark Museum 

273. Scarf for the dead, design of The Name 
of God; cotton, printed; India; 20th cen- 
tury; Oppi Untracht 

274. Buoy globes^; Corning Glass Center 

275. Airplane and airport lights; Corning 
Glass Center 

276. Railroad signal light lenses; Corning 
Glass Center 

277. Traffic signal roundels; Coming Glass 

278. Demonstration of lighting's effect on 
color; Large Lamp Department, General 
Electric Company 

279. Bookpaper, Fantasy; Ingeborg Borjeson; 
Sweden; about 1950; Cooper Union Mu- 

280. Study of Color and Communications; a 
research project exploring the effect of 
colors in reactions to various forms of 
communications; Social Research, Inc. 

281. Textbooks; development in use of color; 
Sun Chemical Corporation 

282. Packaging color trials for White Rose 
Tea; Lippincott and Margulies, Inc. 

283. Cocktail dress. Sun Goddess; Le Gip; 
silk; United States, New York; 1960; 
Le Gip Studios 

284. Automobile colors; sample colors popu- 
lar from 1950 to 1960; Allied Chemical 
Corporation, National AnUine Division, 
Harmon Colors 

285. Fashion Colors; chart of colors popular 
from 1950 to 1960; American Fabrics 

286. Home Fashion Colors; chart of colors 
popular from 1950 to 1960; adapted from 
graph prepared by Faber Birren for 
House and Garden 

287. Fall Colors; 1960; Esquire 

288. Standard Color Card -9th edition; The 


Color Association of the U. S., Inc. 

289. Color card, projected colors for Spring, 
1960; The Color Association of the 
U. S., Inc. 

290. Assembly of swatches for development 
of projected colors for Spring, 1960; 
The Color Association of the U. S., Inc. 

291. ChUdren's clothing for Spring, 1960; W. 
T. Grant Company 

292. Assembly of swatches for development 
of colors for Spring, 1960; W. T. Grant 

293. Model for opera setting, Ariadne auf 
Naxos; Robert O'Hearn; United States, 
New York; 1959; Robert O'Hearn 

294. Theatre costume for Lute Song, the Prin- 
cess before marriage; Robert Edmond 
Jones (1887-1954); made by Brooks 
Costume Company; United States, New 
York; 1945; Brooks Costume Company 

295. Theatre costume for Lute Song, the Prin- 

cess as a bride; Robert Edmond Jones 
(1887-1954); made by Brooks Costume 
Company; United States, New York; 
1945; Brooks Costume Company 

296. Two sheets of a circus billboard poster; 
color lithograph; United States; 1950- 
1958; Cooper Union Museum 

297. Color structure; painted wood; Thornton 
Rockwell; 1959; Cooper Union Art 

298. Medieval torture pattern; originally re- 
produced by Norman E. Hallendy for 
exhibition, Look This Way, organized by 
the National Industrial Design Council, 
Ottawa, Canada; NIDC and Norman E. 

299. Wood block print, Three Ladies Strol- 
ling; Japan; 18th- 19th century; Cooper 
Union Museum 

300. Painting, Peacock; Japan; 18th-19th cen- 
tury; Cooper Union Museum 



This bibliography has been limited largely to books and articles consulted in 
the preparation of the exhibition, most of which may be found in the libraries of 
The Cooper Union. Further useful references are listed in the appropriate 
headings in periodicals indexes such as the Art Index, International Index, etc. 

General Works 

Aristoteles. De anima, book II & III (Intro- 
duction to Aristotle, edited by Richard Mc- 
Keon. New York, Modern Library, 1947.) 

Beaumont, Roberts. Colour in woven design. 
London, Whittaker, 1890. 

Birren, Faber. Monument to color. New 
York, McFarlane, 1938. 

Birren, Faber. New horizons in color. New 
York, Reinhold, 1955. 

Burris-Meyer, Elizabeth. Color and design in 
the decorative arts. New York, Prentice- 
Hall, 1937. 

Couleurs; revue du Centre d'Information de la 
Couleur, Paris, (periodical) 

Damaz, Paul. Art in European architecture. 
Preface by Le Corbusier. New York, Rein- 
hold, 1956, p. 46-67. 

Evans, Ralph M. An introduction to color. 
New York, Wiley, 1948. 

Garnsey, Julian E. Color in architecture. 
(Hamlin, Talbot. Forms and functions of 
twentieth century architecture, vol. 2, p. 
260-272. New York, Columbia University 
Press, 1952.) 

Gatz, Konrad, and Wallenfang, Wilhelm. Far- 
bige Bauten, Miinchen, Callwey, 1960. 

Gloag, Bill, and Keyte, Michael. Colour: co- 
ordination for the manufacturer and user. 
Design, no. 123, p. 34-40, March 1959; 
Colour; co-ordinating a range. Design, Tio. 
129, p. 33-37, September 1959. 

Graves, Maitland E. The art of color and de- 
sign. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1941. 

Graves, Maitland E. Color fundamentals. 
New York, McGraw-Hill, 1952. 

Howgrave-Graham, Robert P. The cathedrals 
of France. New York, Hastings House, 
1959, p. 62-67. 

Inter-Society Color Council. Color as used in 

architecture, design and decoration; report 
of . . . 19th annual meeting. New York, 

Inter-Society Color Council News Letter, (peri- 

Judd, Deane B. Color in business, science and 
industry. New York, Wiley, 1952. 

Kreisel, Heinrich. Farbiges Nymphenburg; 
Farbaufnahmen von Ernst Hausknost. Miin- 
chen, Bruckmann, 1944. 

Lurgat, Andre. Formes, composition, et lois 
d'harmonie; elements d'une science de I'es- 
thetique architecturale. Paris, Vincent, 
1953-57, vol. 3, p. 41-94. 

Optical Society of America. Committee on 
Colorimetry. The science of color. New 
York, Crowell, 1953. 

Regnier, Jean D. De la lumiere et de la cou- 
leur chez les grands maitres ancien. Paris, 
Renouard, 1865. 

Watson, William. Textile design and colour, 
elementary weaves and figured fabrics. 5th 
ed. London, Longmans Green, 1946. 

Color and Light 

Eastman Kodak Company. Color as seen and 
photographed. Rochester, 1951. 

Harvey, E. Newton. A history of lumines- 
cence from the earliest times until 1900. 
Philadelphia, American Philosophical So- 
ciety, 1957. 

Land, Edwin H. Experiments in color vision. 
Scientific American, vol. 200, no. 5, p. 84- 
99, May 1959. 

Minnaert, Marcellus. Light and colour in the 
open air. London, Bell, 1940. 

Newton, Sir Isaac. Opticks; or, A treatise of 
the reflections, refractions, inflections and 
colours of light. 2nd ed., with additions. 
London, Innys, 1718. 


Society of Motion Picture and Television En- 
gineers, Inc. Elements of color in profes- 
sional motion pictures. New York, 1957. 

Society of Motion Picture and Television En- 
gineers, Inc. Principles of color sensito- 
metry. New York, 1950. 

Nature and Color Chemistry 

Baker, George P. Calico painting and print- 
ing in the East Indies in the XVIIth and 
XVIIIth centuries. London, Arnold, 1921. 

2 vols. 

Bancroft, Edward. Experimental researches 
concerning the permanent colours. 2nd ed. 
London, Sidney, 1813. 2 vols. 

Boyle, Robert. Experiments and considera- 
tions touching colours. London, Printed for 
H. Herringman, 1664. 

Ciba Company, Inc. The story of chemical 
industry in Basle. Published by CIBA Lim- 
ited on the occasion of its 75th anniversary. 
Olten, Urs Graf Publishers, 1959. 

Ciba Company, Inc. Textile printing with 
dyes of the Society of Chemical Industry in 
Basle, Switzerland, and with those of the 
Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich., 
edited and compiled by B, Wuth. New 
York, Howes Publishing Company, 1928. 

3 vols. 

Cooper, Thomas. A practical treatise on dye- 
ing and callicoe printing. Philadelphia, 
Dobson, 1815. 

Desbleds, L. Blin. Exact colour matching and 
specifying. Paris, Technological and Indus- 
trial Service, 1928. 

Dollfus-Ausset, Daniel. Materiaux pour la 
coloration des etoffes. Paris, Savy, 1865. 2 

Domestic processes for dying (sic!) woollen, 
silk, cotton, and other stuffs, a permanent 
yellow, red, crimson, blue . . ., &c. &c. Re- 
pository of Arts, Literature, Fashions, Man- 
ufactures; 2nd series, vol. 2, p. 13-15, July 

Dyeing among primitive peoples. Ciba Re- 
view, no. 68, June 1948. 

Dyeing and tanning in classical antiquity. Ciba 
Review, no. 9, May 1938. 

Dyestuffs; published quarterly by National 
Aniline Division, Allied Chemical Corpora- 
tion, New York, (periodical) 

Eastlake, Sir Charles L. Materials for a his- 
tory of oil painting. London, Longman, 
1847. 2 vols. 

Edelstein, Sidney M. Historical notes. Amer- 
ican Dyestuff Reporter, 1957-59. (various 

Exmouth, Charles E. (Pellew). Dyes and dye- 
ing, by Charles E. Pellew. New York, 
McBride, 1918. 

Forbes, Robert J. Studies in ancient tech- 
nology. Leiden, Brill, 1956, vol. 4, p. 98- 

Gettens, Rutherford J., and Stout, George L. 
Painting materials, a short encyclopaedia. 
New York, Van Nostrand, 1942. 

Great masters of dyeing in 18th century 
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